The Use of Web Publishing Technologies in Environmental NGOs --Blog, RSS/Atom and Wiki

A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Internet Technology of Brandenburg Technical University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Information- and Medium Technology

Ying Wu

Register: 2120133

Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Gerd Wagner

04,01, 2006

Table of Contents

1. Motivation
2. Research Objective
3. Actual Situation in Environmental NGOs
1. User Aspects
1.1. Traditional publishing
1.2. WCMS
1.3. Blog and Wiki
2. Blog
2.1. Definition
2.2. Blog-related terms
2.3. Functions
2.3.1. Content creation
2.3.2. Content interaction
2.3.3. Content management
2.3.4. Rendering
2.4. As a new communication media type
2.5. Use of Blogs
2.5.1. Personal knowledge management
2.5.2. A global conversation
2.5.3. Social networking
2.5.4. Information routing
2.6. Disadvantage
2.7. How Blog works
3. RSS/Atom Feeds
3.1. Why RSS/Atom
3.2. Why not Email
3.3. Definition
3.4. RSS/Atom related terms
3.5. Versions of RSS/Atom feeds
3.5.1. RSS 0.9X
3.5.2. RSS 1.0
3.5.3. RSS 2.0
3.5.4. Atom
3.6. RSS feeds are syndicated
3.7. RSS feeds are aggregated
3.8. Creating RSS/Atom feeds
4. Wiki
4.1. Definition
4.2. Use of Wiki
4.2.1. Collect information
4.2.2. Project collaboration aids
4.2.3. Collaborative document
4.2.4. Social networking
4.3. Technical aspects of Wikis
4.4. How Wiki works
4.5. Vandalism
5. Comparing Blog, Wiki with WCMS
6. Comment
7. Comparison of Software for Implementing for Blog, Wiki and for Creating/Consuming RSS/Atom Feeds
7.1. Software for implementing Blog
7.2. Software for implementing Wiki
7.3. Software for creating RSS/Atom feeds
7.4. Software for consuming RSS/Atom feeds
1. Greenpeace
1.1. Blog as a community-platform (inner- and external crews to spread propaganda)
1.1.1. First Blog of Greenpeace International as a forum to launch new technique.
1.1.2. As anniversary Blog
1.1.3. Compare with 25th anniversary of German Greenpeace without Blog
1.1.4. Blog as arm of campaigns
1.2. Blog and CMS
1.3. Using RSS for updating Blog
1.4. Another use of RSS
1.5. Search engine
1.6. Posts and comments
1.6.1. Contents and their frequency
1.6.2. Comments registration
2. RealClimate
2.1. The purpose
2.2. Success and impact
2.3. As a forum to discuss the climate science
2.4. Supported by WordPress
2.5. Comment management
2.6. RSS 2.0 to update Blog
2.7. Search engine
3. The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami
3.1. Use of Blog
3.2. Background
3.3. Purpose
3.4. Supply the help and recent information
3.5. Witness the catastrophe
3.6. Building a quick donation for victims and the organizations
3.7. Finding the missing people with flickr
3.8. Newsfeeds for Blog
3.9. Supported by Blogger
3.10. The Tsunamihelp Wiki
4. Review:
5. Benifits of Blog and Wiki in Environmental NGOs/Groups
1. Problems of China's Environmental NGOs
2. Proposal for the Use of Blog
3. How to Create and Maintain a Good Blog
3.1. Creating Blog
3.1.1. Manual publishing
3.1.2. Blog scripts
3.1.3. Blog services
3.2. Writing a good content to attract readers
3.3. Maintaining Blog search engine well
3.3.1. Best headings for posts
3.3.2. Provid the text
3.3.3. Pay attention to the first paragraph
3.3.4. The Blog title is not too long.
3.3.5. Syndicating Blog
3.3.6. Keeping links updated
3.4. Comment management
3.5. Building semantic Blog
4. Using Blog to Get Donation
4.1. Inspiration for donation
4.2. Blogging as an effective fundraising strategy
4.3. Tips
4.3.1. Attract readers
4.3.2. Strategy for setting a clear goal
4.3.3. Effective post publishing for donation
5. Using Wiki to Collaborate Environmental Issues
5.1. The difference between Blog and Wiki
5.2. Efficient collaboration platform
5.3. Collecting information
5.3.1. List all of the related resources in directory
5.3.2. Using Wiki tool in writing detail information in the directory
6. Conclusion
A. Table of Figures
B. Table of Abbreviation


World Wide Web (WWW) is very popular and widely used by Internet users, but publishing is more difficult than reading. Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) have always been used in the publishing world on the WWW to reduce the work for WebPages making, but this technology is not advantageous in social network as compare with Blog and Wiki. These systems are very expensive and used mostly by larger enterprises. Though, WCMS have always been used in publishing world, they are not the best tools. Besides, it is from WCMS that the open source applications were developed. Some of these open source applications on the WWW are Blog and Wiki.

Blogging has emerged as a social phenomenon, which has impacted politics, business and communication. Blogging software has enabled people with limited knowledge of the Internet to publish their thoughts online and participate in a global conversation; while the Blogosphere has hyper-accelerated the spread of information.

In the thesis, I will be carrying a study on the use of new technologies in environmental organizations, which involved Websites like NRDC and BUBL, which are link to the environmenta groups. About 58 Websites can be found, which do not contain only national groups but also global organizations. Six Websites were found with organizations using Blog and RSS/Atom. Wiki was less used in environmental groups.

The same situation is common with environmental groups in China, they do not use Blog and Wiki yet. In recent years, many people have been focusing on the environmental issues and a number of China's non-governmental organizations (NGOs) haven grown rapidly. Looking at the main tasks of environmental organizations and the use of Blog and WIki, I will give some suggestions to help organizations in China efficiently carry their work.

  • Creating and maintaining Blog and Wiki .

  • Using Blog to get donation.

  • Using Wiki to collaborate environmental issues, e.g. to collect information about endangered species.

I will also be presenting a case of Drupal, which is an open-source platform and content management system (CMS) for building dynamic Websites offering a broad range of features. This CMS is proposed because it contains all features of Blog, Wiki, XML publishing for content sharing and many others.


1. Motivation

Reading information from WWW is more popular and used frequently, but publishing is clearly more difficult than reading. The text editor, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tutorial and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) are hard for each beginner to learn and it takes a lot of time to learn them. Though the What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) editors e.g.Dreamweaver, FrontPage can decrease the work of the developer actually, these represent unfortunately only some information and data. WCMS are used to reduce the expense for Webpages-marking with the practical Web interface, easy changed templates and useful tools. However, these systems are very expensive and are only used by larger enterprises.Though, WCMS have always been used in publishing world, they are not the best tools. Besides, it is from WCMS that the open source applications were developed. Some of them on the WWW are Blog and Wiki.

Another point is the result of this publishing system. Blog and Wiki provide easy publishing mechanisms. In this way everyone can publish the idea and opinion in Internet. People no longer use Internet passively to get the information, but actively to participate.

Furthermore, Blog and Wiki are the social software. They are the new and innovative applications of the hyper linking concept on the WWW. People merge to exchange viewpoints and ideas, this will facilitate the comprehension, education and extend the information in the social network.

2. Research Objective

In this thesis, I will be examining the use of Blog and Wiki in environmental organizations. The main objective is to show the benefits of new technologies in Web publishing to foster communication in environmental NGOs. This can lead to the following main research questions:

  • As compare with the traditional communication-media, what are the benefits Web publishing technologies have?

  • How are they used from a technical point of view?

The purpose of this thesis is to try to sensitize organizations on the new publishing technologies. The main method will be an analysis of Web publishing technologies based on monitoring the Websites of some environmental organizations and using some existing data about environmental issues.

3. Actual Situation in Environmental NGOs

The rapid development of WWW has brought changes in the entire society and improvement in communication. This is because some solutions to key environmental problems are being published on the WWW. Furthermore, many environmental organizations founded, not only offline, but also online, including many private groups. They consider how to use Web publishing efficiently to increase public awareness of environmental protection, to expose environmental problems, encourage people understanding of the environment and of the need for sustainability. In order to reach their goals, they are seeking for new technologies.

Unfortunately, many of these organizations know very little about these new Web publishing technologies. Opposite numerous environmental organizations, only little organizations use Blog and Wiki.

China has very serious environmental problems. In recent years number of China's non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have grown rapidly. The main aims of China’s environmental NGOs are to educate and guide the public, to promote public involvement and to lobby government on issues of environmental protection policy. But they are facing some difficulties, e.g. constraints in registration procedures, limited funding and little contact with each other. Considering the main tasks of environmental organizations and the use of Blog and Wiki in China, I think the way of publishing with Blog and Wiki can help china’s environmental NGOs efficiently carry their works.


1. User Aspects

Since the development of Internet, publishing on the Web has rapidly achieved significant importance. The technology has also evolved dramatically from the days of flat files and FTP program. This simplified the work of WebPages making.

1.1. Traditional publishing

Authors write articles and publish them by HTML code. A plain text editor or further advanced HTML editors are tools that support these activities. Creating the HTML pages, users then have to upload them to a Web server in order to make them available on the WWW. So authors need to understand the basics of HTML, how to transfer files on the Internet, and they need storage space on a Web server to publish their files. If they do not know the knowledge, the administrator is required to work for the publishing. All of the WebPages were accessed and controlled by the administrator. In large organizations, especially global organizations, the work for publishing and updating would be too much for the administrator, this is because the content is in the layout, so, updating an article, must be followed with changes in the layout.

1.2. WCMS

As the complexity of Web applications has increased, so have the tools required to manage them. WCMS is used to reduce the expense for making WebPages in traditional way. It separates content storage from content presentation. Contents can be text, articles, pictures, sounds and more. That makes it possible to present the same content using different presentation formats, for example as a Website, as a pure text file or as a word processing document.

WCMS usually have user-friendly interfaces that enable users to publish texts without having expertise in programming or page description languages. Most WCMS additionally implement workflow functionality so that publishing is only possible following a pre-defined process that might involve multiple people. This is necessary when it comes to managing larger Websites where editors need to pre-check content scheduled for publishing by their subordinated editors.

Finally, versioning with a revision history and rollback are also common features of WCMS. Versioning allows editors to monitor a WebPages’s change history and enables them to reinstate, or “rollback”, any old version available on the system. However these systems are very expensive and are mostly used by larger enterprises.

Nevertheless, there are other open source WCMS, such as Typo3, Mambo and Drupal, which are very successful and were used widely.

1.3. Blog and Wiki

WCMS have always been used in publishing world, they are not the best tools. They are not free and are complex. Besides, it is from WCMS that the open source applications on the WWW were developed. Some of these open source applications on the WWW are Blog and Wiki.

Blog and Wiki are two social softwares to present a new trend of Web publishing that people can publish their opinions more freely. From next section I will underline these two and related technologies.

2. Blog

2.1. Definition

From a technical point of view, Blog (also called Weblog) has no standard definition. There are many definitions for Blog, which varies within different fields.

Generally a Blog is a Web-based application, which is a Webpage containing items of information arranged in reverse chronological order frequently updated. Blogs are often conversational and has the ability of readers to leave comments on each post that Blogger made. Comments are usually time-stamped and identified by the author's name and perhaps a link to their Web site or Blog. Blogs can typically take the form of a diary, journal or links to other Websites.

Figure 2.1. Blog of Greenpeace

Blog of Greenpeace

2.2. Blog-related terms

It is necessary to explain related terms to avoid confusion when it comes to dealing with publications in the field of Blogs.

  • Blogging: Writing or maintaining a Blog.

  • Blogger: Person who writes a Blog.

  • Blogosphere: Total universe of Blogs.

  • Podcasting: Contraction of “iPod” and “broadcasting. Posting audio and video material on a Blog and its RSS feeds, for digital players.

  • Blogroll: List of external links appearing on a Blog, often to other Blogs and usually in a column on the homepage. Often amounts to a “sub-community” of Bloggers who are friends.

  • Comment spam: Like Email spam. It can flood a Blog with advertising in the form of bogus comments. A serious problem that requires Bloggers and Blog platforms to have tools to exclude some users or ban some addresses in comments.

2.3. Functions

Blog represents tool for online publishing. Normally they have the function such as Content Creation, Content Interaction, Content Management, and Content Rendering.

2.3.1. Content creation

Blogger creates content on the Blog. This might be a link, a brief notice, a longer editorial text, or a multimedia element such as an image, music file or a movie clip.

  • Multi-authoring: Multi-authoring means that multiple authors with different user accounts can post on one Blog.

  • Multiple posting fields: Multiple posting fields refer to the data entry fields on the user interface that is presented to the Blogger, for example post titles, sub-titles and the actual content etc.

  • WYSIWYG editor: The editor was first used in the field of desktop publishing. It displays documents on the computer screen in a view that is very close to the final printed-out result.

2.3.2. Content interaction

Once the content is created and published, visitors as well as the original author might interact with it in form of comments and trackbacks. Commenting

The most prominent interaction functionality on Blogs is commenting. Commenting usually comes as a data entry form attached to a posting. Visitors enter their comments and further optional information such as name or Email address. After submitting, visitors’ comments are displayed together with the posting on the Blog. Friendly links

Friendly links refer to a repository for adding, editing, and deleting links to other Websites, which the Blog owner likes. Usually, friendly links are displayed as a link list on the sidebar of a Blog. Trackbacks

Trackbacks are an advanced form of commenting and inter-linkage. Often, Bloggers create postings on the same topic after they have been inspired by a posting on another Blog.

Trackbacks are an automated methods. They only work if the sending as well as the receiving Blog explicitly support trackbacks. Using a special trackback Uniform Resource Locator (URL) the sending Blog contacts the other Blog and informs it via an extensible Markup Language (XML)message that it wants to leave a trackback on the specified article. The receiving script, software or Blog service accepts the request and automatically generates a link back to the sender Blog.

This functionality is one of the reasons for the strong inter-linkage of Blogs on the WWW. However, it is also subject to abuse because spammers can use trackbacks for automatically creating back-links to their sites. Pings

Similar to trackbacks, pings are supposed to create an inter-linkage to the WWW. Simultaneously, they intend to inform the blogosphere that new content has been added to a Blog. Therefore, the Blog service connects to central ping directories, such as,, or technorati, and leaves an XML message with the Blog’s URL, publishing data, post title, and post text in order to signal that new content is present on the specified Blog. The ping directory accepts this information, stores it in its database, and then publishes a list of recently updated Blogs on the WWW.

2.3.3. Content management

Blog content is being managed manually by the Blogger who also receives automated assistance by the Blog service.

  • Archiving: Archiving is often performed automatically by the Blog service. Older posts are removed from a Blog’s front page to an archive where users can access them ordered by date.

  • Categories: Categories enable users to sort and categorize their content. Whenever a post is published, Blogger can categorize it. Usually, categories are presented as links on the Blog. By clicking on a category link, only the postings in this category are displayed.

  • Post management: Blogger can edit or delete postings at any time.

  • Search: Search function allows visitors to perform full-text searches on a Blog’s content.

2.3.4. Rendering

Content rendering is constantly present at all stages of the content publication process. Permalinks

Permalinks refer to a Blog posts URL. A post’s permalink stays constant, even if the content of the posting, its categorisation, or date is changed by the author. The intention is to keep all contents uniquely identified, once it has been published. Templates

Templates directly refer to a Blog service’s rendering engine. Blog services separate content from presentation. During rendering, the content is pasted into a template, which is then displayed to the visitor.

Regarding design aspects, Blog services often provide different pre-designed templates to choose from. In addition, it is sometimes also possible that users can change the template code by themselves. This provides higher flexibility, since Bloggers can customise their Blogs’ appearances individually and do not have to rely on pre-designed templates.

2.4. As a new communication media type

Blog is Internet-based communication tool. Blogger publish the posts in Internet. They decide which persons can be invited to look at their thoughts and opinions on a regular basis.

Blogis hyperactive. This means that Blogs can link to other Websites. If a Blogger has read an article on the Internet that he thinks others should read, he can make a comment on the article and link readers directly to it. This allows the Blogger and readers to have access to the same materials on the Internet and enter into a discussion about them.

Blog is interactive. The Blogger may post a decision to introduce material using a small group activity. The readers now switch roles and become participants. They can post comments offering support or suggesting alternative ways to handle the same material.

Bloggers place their ideas out in public for the world to see and react to. Bloging are in reverse chronological order, which means the most recent postings are at the top of the page. Often postings refer to an earlier discussion that may be found by scrolling down or following a link to an archive. Adding a new posting to a Blog is easily accomplished with the use of specialized software programs for maintaining Blogs.

2.5. Use of Blogs

2.5.1. Personal knowledge management

A Blog serves as a chronological record of the thoughts, references and other notes that could otherwise be lost or disorganized. When the need arises, users can either look up the Blog's contents using a search engine or visit it chronologically. Links between different posts that were put in by the author help trace threads of thought.

2.5.2. A global conversation

Blog has become a medium for public discussion. A custom has evolved of linking to sources, and other similar works. As a result, readers can more easily track the conversations and get involved in them.

2.5.3. Social networking

Blog affords an opportunity for social networking. Over time, Blog editors come to be known quite well by their regular readers; these personalities may prove invaluable in giving them opportunities that they would not have had otherwise. For instance, it is common for a Blog editor to ask for, and receive, advice or help from his readers.

2.5.4. Information routing

Blog has the beneficial effect of letting information circulate more freely across communities. The readers and editors of a Blog often do not belong to the same community or organization. While ideas, information and inspiration at the intersection can enter a community, which without such a relationship, it could have been hard to establish and maintain outside the Blog system.

2.6. Disadvantage

Everything has two sides. Passive consumers of information have become energetic participants in a new social network. Some people will gradually develop their own ethical standards, to become more credible and win public confidence. But the Internet is still full of unreliable information and people exchanging insults. Blog has disadvantages as well as benefits. It may produce low-quality information. Like all speech, Blog can cause emotional harm, reputation damage, mislead and defraud. The particular problem with Blog is that they are not intermediated – they are simply individuals talking, amplified by the megaphone of the Internet, sometimes they are boring or disgusting. The boring or disgusting Blogs will spring up as fast as good and interesting ones.

In addition, there is also another problem of comment spams.

Further, some functions should be improved. For example, the search function just supports full-text searches on a Blog’s content.

2.7. How Blog works

Blog works in the basic client/server model. Clients create the content and then publish it to a server. The server then makes the content available.

This can be seen in the diagram below, which shows how Blog works. Blogger, as a client side writes something and publishes it with Weblog-system, which is set up in server side. The Weblog-system then updates his site's HTML, updates his RSS file and sends a ping message to the Aggregation Ping Server indicating that his site has been updated. When the search engines like Google™ and RSS specific services like feedster, technorati and pubsub, and periodically ask the Aggregation Ping Server, "Which sites have been updated?" The Aggregation answers, "It’s Blogger." Since Blogger's site sends pings and has an RSS file and is easy to update frequently, Blogger's Search engine rank is higher than a normal site. Meanwhile a Internet-Surfer uses a program called an RSS reader to subscribe to Blogger's site. The RSS reader checks Blogger's RSS file for updates periodically (usually once/hour or once per day) and notifies her of Blogger's updates. The Internet-Surfer no longer wastes time surfing Blogger's site manually. She just checks her RSS reader. As a result, The Internet-Surfer's information flow is more efficient and she can monitor more sites in less time.

Figure 2.2. How Blog works

How Blog works

3. RSS/Atom Feeds

3.1. Why RSS/Atom

Most people are interested in many Websites whose content changes on an unpredictable schedule. But repeatedly checking each Website to see if there is any new content can be very tedious. Is there a way not to go to the Internet and new stories directly come? Yes. RSS/Atom can pulls the latest headlines, and displays them on a single page to the users.

3.2. Why not Email

Email notification of changes was an early solution to this problem. Unfortunately, when users receive Email notifications from multiple Websites they are usually disorganized and can get overwhelming, and are often mistaken for spam. RSS/Atom is a better way to be notified of new and changed content. Notifications of changes to multiple Websites are handled easily, and the results are presented to readers well organized and distinct from Email.

3.3. Definition

RSS can stand for Resource Description Framework (RDF) Site Summary, Rich Site Summary, or Really Simple Syndication. It is an XML-based format that allows Web developers to describe and syndicate Website content. Using RSS feeds allows developers to create a data feed that supplies headlines, links, and article summaries from a Website. Other sites can then incorporate these elements into their pages automatically.

Essentially, an RSS feeds is a document describing a "channel" consisting of URL-retrievable items. Each item consists of a title, link, and brief description.

3.4. RSS/Atom related terms

  • Feed: the context of subscription, a list of notifications, also called RSS Channel.

  • Subscription: a Blog or feed that user have directed his/her aggregator to monitor

  • Aggregator: a piece of software that allows user to read, manage and subscribe to Blogs or feeds, also called RSS Reader.

  • Syndication: incorporating the content from a Blog into his/her own Website

3.5. Versions of RSS/Atom feeds

Figure 2.3. The versions of RSS/Atom

The versions of RSS/Atom

Like the Figure shows, there are different feed formats and has never been standardized. This is why we have so many different RSS/Atom formats in use today. But almost all applications that handle RSS/ feeds can read all the different versions. Besides different versions of RSS, ATOM is used also as a syndication tool. The original RSS, version 0.90, was developed by Netscape™ as a format for building portals of headlines to mainstream news sites. But it was too complex to reach its goals.

3.5.1. RSS 0.9X

RSS 0.91and RSS 0.92 are simpler version, which was proposed and subsequently dropped when Netscape™ lost interest in the portal-making business. Main types of elements are in the example RSS0.92, below is the Code

<rss version="0.92">
           <title>Pam from the Philippines</title>
           <link> </link>
           <description>Pam blogs from the Rainbow Warrior</description>
            <item> </item>

After that two separate strands of development took place resulting in RSS 1.0 and RSS 2.0 .

3.5.2. RSS 1.0

The RSS development working group base continued to develop the original RSS 0.91 standard, continuing with RDF but adding the Dublin Core and namespace functionality to achieve a common vocabulary for identifying the schema elements. The result is RSS 1.0 - a lightweight multi-purpose extensible metadata description and syndication format that is human and machine-readable. RSS is an XML application that conforms to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)'s RDF specification and is extensible via XML namespace and/or RDF based modularisation. But RDF tools failed to develop at an adequate rate to keep pace with RSS’s popularity.

  <channel rdf:about="">
    <title>The XML Files</title>
    <description>by Aaron Skonnard</description>
    <image rdf:resource="" />
        <rdf:li resource="" />
        <rdf:li resource="" />
  <image rdf:about="">
  <item rdf:about="">
    <title>1st blog entry</title>
    <description>This is my first blog entry.</description>
  <item rdf:about="">
    <title>2nd Blog Entry</title>
    <description>This is my second blog entry.</description>

3.5.3. RSS 2.0

In late 2002, RSS 2.0 was released superseding the RSS 0.9x. It is relatively simple and has lighter weight. So RSS 2.0 quickly became the most popular version of RSS. But it is not recommended for adoption.

Nearly every part of the RSS 2.0 format is optional, and developers can extend the very brief specification with elements from namespace-­qualified vocabularies. These factors created a rather chaotic situation in which many implementations included extension elements that overlapped with, or served identical purposes to, core elements.

RSS 2.0 is mostly used as a way of sending around the content of Blogs. It really took off when thousands of Bloggers started to use it to publish their own content and read content from other Blogs.

RSS 1.0 and RSS 2.0 are managed by two opposing camps. RSS 2.0 seems to be the simplest and most prevalent. However, RSS 1.0 has a richer grammar and a more clearly defined means of extending the basic structure.

<rss version="2.0">
    <title>The XML Files</title>
    <description>by Aaron Skonnard</description>
      <title>1st blog entry</title>
      <description>This is my first blog entry.</description>
      <pubDate>Wed, 14 Jan 2004 17:16:44 GMT</pubDate>
      <title>2nd blog entry</title>
      <description>This is my second blog entry</description>
      <pubDate>Wed, 14 Jan 2004 17:16:45 GMT</pubDate>

3.5.4. Atom

Besides different versions of RSS, Atom is used also as a tool to standardize the technology of syndication.

Atom is a newer format than RSS and not all aggregators are capable (as of February 2004) of reading Atom feeds. Many new versions of aggregators are comprehensive listing of which is available at the Atom Enabled Directory. Some Websites produce only Atom feeds and not RSS feeds.

Atom was created because people felt that RSS could be improved upon, and disagreed with some of the politics regarding RSS. Sam Ruby, a member of the IBM™ Emerging Technologies Group, began to discuss what makes "a well-formed log entry". People quickly started using the Wiki to discuss a new syndication format to replace RSS. With discussion the project moved to a standards body such as the W3C or the Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF). The group eventually chose the IETF, and the Atompub Working Group was formally setup in June 2004. In particular Atom was added to several Google-related services, such as Blogger and Gmail.

<feed version="0.3" xml:lang="en-us" xmlns="">
  <title>The XML Files</title>
  <tagline>by Aaron Skonnard</tagline>
    <name>Aaron Skonnard</name>
    <title>1st blog entry</title>
    <content type="text/html" mode="xml">
      <body xmlns="">
        <p>This is my first blog entry</p>
    <title>2nd blog entry</title>
    <content type="text/html" mode="xml">
      <body xmlns="">
        <p>This is my second blog entry</p>

From the FrontPage Atom Wiki the main idea of Atom is to “support for Blog entries in multiple languages and formats, the machine-readable information about authors, etc. And the Blog editing system will be fully extensible, so that editors can take advantage of non-standard additions (like MovableType's Excerpt and Format features) without resorting to proprietary protocols or additional calls. The result is a user experience that is faster, more featureful, and less bugprone”. “Atom is not just a replacement for RSS, it is also a chance to unify the Blog formats. It wants to solve the confusion with just one format - Atom and one protocol - Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)”.

For the extensibility Atom 1.0 is in an XML namespace and may contain elements or attributes from other XML namespaces. This means that most RSS 1.0 and RSS 2.0 modules may be used in Atom. Users can use a tool that converts Atom feeds into RSS feed, such as Atom2RSS, by 2RSS.

3.6. RSS feeds are syndicated

At its most basic, RSS generates a list of links, generated programmatically, to various resources on the site with a description of the content for each link. The Figure below describes a way that various RSS Feeds are aggregated by RDF Gateway, which served as an aggregator and displayed on the Web. RSS makes it possible to increase the distribution of their content by allowing it to be included on other Websites.

Figure 2.4. How are RSS feeds syndicated?

How are RSS feeds syndicated?

In this mechanism a package rss_sample as RDF Gateway makes it easy to create a Website that syndicates information from external data sources. The package gather the RDF data contained in remote RSS feeds. The information from the feeds is copied into a RDF Gateway database table and then is kept current by using a RDF Gateway timer to periodically update it with the latest information from the RSS feeds.

A RDF Server Page (RSP) formats the news information in the database table into a HMTL Webpage. These WebPFages display a title, brief description and link to for each news item. Users can view the WebPage for the news site by navigating their Web browser to the URL of the RSP.

3.7. RSS feeds are aggregated

The special XML-format file that makes up an RSS feed is usually created in one of a variety of ways. Most large news Websites and most Blogs are maintained using special "content management" programs. Authors add their stories and postings to the Website by interacting with those programs and then use the program's "publish" facility to create the HTML files that make up the Website. Those programs often also can update the RSS feed at the same time, adding an item referring to the new story or post, and removing less recent items. Here is a diagram showing how the Websites, the RSS feed and your personal computer are connected:

Figure 2.5. How RSS feeds aggregated

How RSS feeds aggregated

3.8. Creating RSS/Atom feeds

Hundreds of thousands of Websites now provide RSS feeds, including major news organizations as well as many Blogs. Normally there are three ways to create RSS feeds:

  • Websites that are produced in a more custom manner, such as with Macromedia Dreamweaver or a simple text editor, usually do not automatically create RSS feed. Authors of such Websites either maintain the RSS feed by hand, just as they do the Website itself, or use a tool such as Software Garden, FeedForAll, FeedEditor, RSS Aggregator.

  • There are also services that periodically read requested Websites themselves and try to automatically determine changes, e.g. in Blog services or MY YAHOO.

  • RSS feed can also be created that are hosted by that service provider.

It is important to understand that while RSS feeds can help keep track of changes of Blog, there is another technology, which is more naturally suited for collaboration---Wiki. Similar with Weblog- systems it acts also a different form from WCMS.

4. Wiki

4.1. Definition

Wiki is a collaboratively written Website driven by specialized server software. It allows users to freely create and edit Webpage content using any Web browser and provides a shared medium through which users from all around the world can collaborate. The concept of the Wiki was invented and implemented for the first time by Ward Cunningham and the name Wiki was inspired by the Hawaiian word wiki or wiki-wiki, which means "quick". Since speed is a fundamental characteristic of this online collaboration tool.

Figure 2.6. Definition of Greenpeace in Wikipedia, the most popular Wiki

Definition of Greenpeace in Wikipedia, the most popular Wiki

4.2. Use of Wiki

There exists a number of available Wiki

4.2.1. Collect information

Wiki resembles a public Internet Message-board or forum, in which every visitor can post contributions. However the postings does not disappear after few days into that deep archives, but a permanent Website forms.

4.2.2. Project collaboration aids

Wiki is a tool for communication in one closed project. It is used as an addition to the usual tools, such as mailing lists and groupware. This is the factor named as the knowledge management. It is said that 60 % of all Intranet projects failed, we should think about it and take an easy way to solute.

4.2.3. Collaborative document

Wikis are extensively used for collaborative documentation of large systems. They are available online, for anybody granted access, and usually include the vital versioning information that allows authors to track the history of their documents. Authors collaboratively create some really well written and in-depth articles and indeed certain projects such as the Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, which announced its 100,000th article in January 2003, have proved to be entirely successful.

Not all Wikis are suitable for this task. For example certain pages on the Wikipedia that deal with particularly controversial topics are periodically subjected to a phenomenon known as an edit war, which is to say the continued editing or reversion of the text by wikipedia contributors, often for social or political reasons. The easiest way to call a halt to such disagreements is to place a block on the page edit functionality for a period of time.

4.2.4. Social networking

Wikis allows users to freely create and edit Webpage content. Most public Wikis are open for everyone, every user can change all content. So the heart of Wiki is its community. Each person who arrives is able to play one or more roles on the site. For example:

  • The large majority of people who visit Wiki are readers. They arrive at Wiki for whatever reason and read one or more articles.

  • Some people who visit Wiki become writers. They add a new section to an existing article or create a brand new article.

  • Many people act as editors. If they see an error on a page they are reading, they correct it. If they can make a small addition that is helpful, they will do it on the spot. Some visitors who have been contributing to Wiki for a period of time are granted administrator privileges. These privileges give them the right to do things like deleting and un-deleting pages, blocking and unblocking Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, etc.

Writers, editors and administer can work together to solve almost all of the problems in an open platform.

4.3. Technical aspects of Wikis

There are numerous Wiki clones today and the underlying techniques are diverse. Data is either stored in databases or in plain text files, e.g. in XML format. In any case the Web server using a Wiki script produces Wiki pages dynamically. These scripts can be written in different scripting languages like Perl or PHP, which have evolved from the original one and been implemented different functions to be used in the Wiki. The script works in the background and remains invisible to the user. Independent of the underlying Wiki script, all Wikis shares the same core functions like creating or editing a Wiki page.

4.4. How Wiki works

Wiki allows a group of people to enter and communally edit bits of text. When users first come to a Wiki, they can try it out through WikiSandBox. So that they were introduced to the mechanics of editing. After the experiment users can simply click on the “edit” button, add or change anything users like in the article they are reading and click the “save” button.

Links to other Wiki pages can easily be made. If the page does not already exist in the Wiki, instead of displaying a broken link, the Wiki engine will automatically generate that page so that users can edit it. While complex mark-up knowledge is not required for Wiki, there are simple syntax conventions for some formatting functions. These texts can be viewed and edited by anyone who visits the Wiki. In this way an anonymous from wrote the first page about Greenpeace at 19:56,14 October 22, 2001. At that time there were just two sentences to explain what is Greenpeace like the Figure below:

Figure 2.7. The first article about Greenpeace in Wikipedia

The first article about Greenpeace in Wikipedia

In such an open environment for creating content, Wiki engines provide mechanisms that validate recent changes. The "RecentChanges" page lists all information about changes lately. From here users who are interested in a specific Wiki page can go on and have a closer look at the changes to the page. The next Figure displays the different between version of 16:05,15 June 2003 and version of 00:20,25 June 2003.

Figure 2.8. The function of "RecentChanges"

The function of "RecentChanges"

Wiki engines also provide the search functionality. Most commonly, it is a ubiquitous link to a special page, which called "FindPage". It typically combines search functionality with links to various other Wiki resources. So the Wiki visitor can search for content with it very helpful.

4.5. Vandalism

The idea that anyone can come to Wiki and edit any page at any time and do so with complete anonymity is extremely disconcerting. Wiki only works with users serious about collaborating and willing to follow the group conventions and practices. So questions arise immediately: It is easy for a person to vandalize Wiki. The vandal might add profanity or inappropriate images to a page might erase all the content of a page, etc.

However, there are tools that make it easy for the community to find and remove vandalism. Looking at the Figure of Greenpeace front page, this page has been temporarily protected from editing to deal with vandalism for a period of time. Vandalism is a problem in Wiki. The history of the definition of Greenpeace in Wikipedia shows that the page was vandalized three times by Mark Dobrowolski, a Wikipedia user from Canada, on 19, October 2005. After that administrator Denelson83 has protected the page. So the page cannot currently be edited, except by administrator.

Another one of the most common way for a Wiki administrator keeping a vandal away from the Wiki is to ban their IP address. The problem is that normally the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) give dynamic IP to its clients. Therefore, each time a user disconnects form the Internet, the ISP will provide a new IP address. If the IP ban doesn't solve the problem, the administrator may consider allowing the vandal to destroy pages freely and after that, fixing the pages manually or loading a backup of the site.

There are also other tools available for example: Anyone who sees vandalism can return pages back to a pre-vandalism state. Meanwhile user can alert the rest of the Wikipedia community to vandalism that is in progress. Tools like IP ban, revision history make members of the community to eliminate vandalism.

5. Comparing Blog, Wiki with WCMS

A book Web Content Management put a set of advantages of the WCMS opposite the traditional Web publishing. These cover the large part with the advantages, which Blog and Wiki bring:

Table 2.1. Comparing Blog, Wiki with WCMS

Web publishing with WCMSFrom Wiki fulfilsFrom Blog fulfils
Contents and layout separatelyYesYes
Publishing directly by no experienced workerYesYes
Working decentralized on a distributed systemYesYes
Shorter time-to-web by decentralizationYesYes
Proportional growth of expenditure and content quantityQuestionablyQuestionably
Workflow automatically over entire content life cycleNoNo
Maintaining by WCMS AutomaticallyPartly, e.g. create, edit, recentChangePartly, e.g trackback, ping, permalinks
Worker merged to their authorityYesYes
Simple redesign over change of layoutNoNo

The following examined individual functions of WCMS shows how WCMS are fulfilled by Blog and Wiki:

  1. Access control. Most Blog make the registration of individual users as well as user groups. The original Wiki is absolutely open, which excludes it for many potential applications. Different stages of user and content control are therefore usually the first points, which emerge in the feature list of extended Wiki servers. WCMS use the assignment of right to writers and readers for individual contributions.

  2. Record function. There is no extra record function in Blog. In the original Wiki it is implemented simply over the timestamp of the changed sides. The RecentChanges site is a basic element of the Wiki and point of approach for regular visitors. More powerful record function located in the feature list of better Wiki servers. They usually store a detailed history of each individual site. The "diff" function usually makes the exact pursuit of all made changes. While WCMS supports many more.

  3. Rollback. Blog has no record function and therefore no possible to rollback with new contributions. While in an open environment like a Wiki the protection from bad-willing use must be considered. The original Wiki relies only on an external back-up solution. Many other servers store a history of all sites and thereby a roll-back each individual side at any past time is also possible. While WCMS supports many more.

  4. Metainformation and administrative functionality. This is a clear difference between Wiki, Blog and WCMS. Using metadata to enrich the administered objects is an essential characteristic of WCMS. Wiki and Blog however hardly use Metainformation.

  5. Inquiry functions. The simply structured Blog are supported directly by only few inquiries. The typical inquiries are the full text search in the contributions, archives and a list of WebPages, which was linked on the own Website. Except these typical inquiries Wiki supports also RecentChanges and rollback. While WCMS supports many more.

  6. Treatment. The treatment of content is relative uncomplicated with Blog and Wiki. Therefore in most cases they concern just pure text and/or HTML code. This is however similar to WCMS.

  7. Workflow. Here is also a clear difference between Wikis, Blogs and WCMS. Wikis and Blogs do not know the content of a life cycle. The fast and direct availability of all changes is an important characteristic of the idea of Wiki and Blog and can not agreed with the complex Workflow.

  8. Organization. The separation from content and layout is realized in Wiki and Blog, since content is not created in an on-line publishable form. The generation of HTML and/or XHTML for the browser takes place by simple templates. This is however similar to WCMS.

  9. Link stability. A conceptional problem of Wikis and Blogs is that the content of a certain side is dynamic. Therefore one cannot assume that the same information is still to be found under the same URL later. This is however similar to WCMS.

  10. Collaboration. This is not a feature of WCMS, but a feature of Wiki. Potentially each Internet-surfer can leave his contributions in Wiki pages and increase the value. Furthermore, in Blog community people can participate, publish the opinion and discuss together to achieve the consistence.

6. Comment

Blog and Wiki are surely not complete WCMS. Both have different applications with only just a small intersection. WCMS consists of numerous features and concerns, which are therefore more with the management of a Website than with their content. Blog and Wiki are more easily structured than WCMS. Blog and Wiki provide a separation of content and presentation. However, they do not provide a WCMS’s sophisticated features, such as page hierarchies, access permissions, or support for workflows. Thus, they should not be classified as WCMS.

7. Comparison of Software for Implementing for Blog, Wiki and for Creating/Consuming RSS/Atom Feeds

7.1. Software for implementing Blog

Blog software runs a Blog system. It can be Blog scripts or Blog services. There are many tools can implement Blog, which users can pick them up:

  • is a free, hosted blogging tool. It's one of the oldest blogging tools and today has millions of users.

  • WordPress:

    WordPress is a solid, powerful blogging system ideal for publishers who are on a budget but who don't want to give up any functionality.

  • Movable Type:

    Movable Type created by Six Apart, is perhaps the best known of all blogging software tools. The system is powerful, but not simple to install or use.

  • BlogWare:

    BlogWare is a robust system with a great selection of the top blogging tools. It can be difficult to customize, even for an experienced HTML jockey.

  • Typepad:

    Typepad is one of Six Apart's hosted half blogging software services and one that has proved very popular with journalistic blogging efforts.

The most effecient software is is one of the most simplest, free, popularly used tools and it has impressive array features. While the others like Movable Type, Blogware, cost a lot and are not simple to install or use. In addition, the least attractive thing of Movable Type is the need to rebuild the Blog whenever a change is made to a template, a configuration setting, or add a new category. This certainly slows down any customisation work done to the design or layout. In does is generated in the FTP program which is transferred in the Blog Website. This means the Blogger can publicize it’s own domain name, rather than more usual Blogger URL: This feature is not common within the others. In addition, what make Blogger outstanding is that features of Blogger is integrated with Audioblogger service, which program the Audioblogger number into user’s phone, and users can put audio recordings on Blog quickly by simply calling the number and recording the Blog. This offering is unique among Blog software packages.

7.2. Software for implementing Wiki

Wiki software runs a Wiki system. It is usually implemented as a server-side script that runs on one or more web servers, with the content generally stored in a relational database management system, although some implementations use the server's file system instead.

It is hard to determine which Wiki engine is the most important. Nevertheless from a list of some popular Wiki engines one can have the impression. Some popular Wiki engines includes:

  • DokuWiki:

    DokuWiki optimizes books and other structured documents. It contents a lot of features like RSS feeds, editing sections, overwrite protection.

  • MediaWiki:

    MediaWiki is used to power Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia.

  • MoinMoin:

    MoinMoin is a full featured open source Wiki with email notification and RSS feeds.

  • PhpWiki:

    PhpWiki is an open source wiki which uses PHP and MySQL and has plug-ins, RSS, and other features.

DokuWiki is a free and Open Source software, it is suitable for private, small to medium companies, while Twiki is a medium to large organizations or as Internet communities. Moreover, DokuWiki can be installed simply in many system platforms, such as Unix, Windows and MacOS and run in Web server Apache with PHP. In addition, it can be supported by more than 30 interfaces of languages, less than MediaWiki. Furthermore, data can be stored as files in DockWiki as well as in MoinMoin and TWiki, so the database is not required, While MediaWiki and PhpWiki use database. Finally, DokuWiki can export RSS feeds and Atom feeds, but unfortunately it cannot export XML, while MediaWiki can export the thirds. At last DokuWiki has mostly the same common features as the others, but what makes it unique from the others is that, it has more syntax feature useful for creating documents.

7.3. Software for creating RSS/Atom feeds

RSS creation software make users to create, edit and publish RSS feeds. At present there are some can be chosen:

  • Feed Editor:

    Feed Editor can make users create professional RSS feeds without complicated RSS technology. It helps users to edit HTML in WYSIWYG editor and support RSS feeds export to HTML,comma-separated values(CSV) and JavaScript. Work with popular podcasting is also supported by Feed Editor.

  • FeedForAll:

    FeedForAll can create, edit and publish RSS feeds and podcasts easily. Advanced features enable users to create professional looking RSS feeds and podcasts quickly and efficiently. Existing RSS feeds can be repaired and enhanced with FeedForAll.

  • RSS Aggregator:

    RSS Aggregator is a tool for those who like RSS and podcasts. With this program, you will be able to create a new RSS feed out of several existing ones in a couple of minutes! Along with the WYSIWYG feed editor, the program has a built-in RSS reader, a blog client, a convenient HTML editor and tools for uploading via FTP and editing images.

Feed Editor is a powerful and easy-to-use RSS feed editor. With this program, users can not only create new RSS feeds that look professionally, but also support them and update. In additional, unlike other RSS creation tools, Feed Editor makes RSS creation simple and fast to add content on the fly, because it does not use any other form of database for the contents. With great usability built into its interface, Feed Editor is built for speed and ease of use.

7.4. Software for consuming RSS/Atom feeds

RSS and Atom files provide news and Blogs updates from a Website in a simple form. Users read these files in consuming RSS/Atom software which collects news from various websites. Here are some choices:

  • Feed Demo:

    Feed Demo stops wasting time checking your favorite web sites for updates

  • Feedreader:

    Feedreader is a lightweight open-source aggregator that supports RSS and Atom formats.

  • RssReader:

    RSS reader is free and able to display any RSS and Atom news feed (XML)

FeedReader is simple and lightweight. It works under Windows 95 and later versions. Opposite to Feed Demon, which costs 29.95, FeedReader is free and can be customizable.


1. Greenpeace

As a global organization, Greenpeace uses non-violent confrontation to expose global environmental problems to force the solutions that are essential to a greener and peaceful future. The so-called nonviolence means that organization uses the public opinions and volunteers’ activities to impact the decision of government or enterprise, which injured the environment.

Greenpeace consists of Greenpeace International in Amsterdam and Greenpeace offices around the world. Greenpeace International serves as a hub of information for its 41 member organizations. It takes responsibility for setting the overall direction of the movement and manages all of the organizations. Blog of Greenpeace International come from contributes from others and its underling campaigns in different fields every month. In Greenpeace's 41 Offices, 25 Blogs were built for various issues. Some are still working, simultaneity some stopped updating. But they all can be the reference for the movements.

In order to know more about the initiation of Blog in Greenpeace, I found the archives in homepage and then read the oldest Blogs, which were ordered by date. This functional feature with reverse chronological order takes me a shorter time to understand. It is really very helpful because it saves time for readers.

1.1. Blog as a community-platform (inner- and external crews to spread propaganda)

1.1.1. First Blog of Greenpeace International as a forum to launch new technique.

The first Blog of Greenpeace posted from Greenpeace International by gillo. He wrote so:

May 28, 2002

Here we go!

Ciao to all, the purpose of this weblog is to show the Internet community what Greenpeace folks do, who they are and would like to share.

Obviously we'll always encourage you to go to for our latest news/info on our campaigns and to the greenpeace cybercentre to participate to our Cyberactivist community.

So this won't be a duplicate of those two sites, and its scope probably goes beyond Greenpeace itself trying to build a personal relationship with all those who are interested about these "tree huggers" (it would be great to have, at a certain point, a contest for the best nickname given to environmentalists)

Posted by gillo at 01:30 PM | Comments (0) | Permalink

About the implementation of Blog, the Chief Web Editor, Brian Fitzgerald, wrote

May 29, 2002

Countdown to Planet Launch

Four weeks to launch of a new website at The web team here in Amsterdam is starting to lower their heads,scuff their feet, and get ready for the final sprint to Planet launch. We go live 24th of June and right now our days are filled with last minute code fix, template tweaks, content hole filling, and the growing vision of light at the end of the tunnel.

Years of inspiration, innovation, perspiration, aggravation, big dreams, big compromise, all hurtling toward a few intense weeks of building a new beast crawling toward the Internet to be born....

We begin to move code to the production server 11th of June, we've got volunteers lining up to help build content 12th-17th, and the pace is starting to hum. Project Manager Dan is talking to the large stuffed Pooh Bear on her desk (surprisingly expert in validating XHTML, Pooh is), Gillo is plotting the weblog of the site build ("Day 5: Doritos are stale, out of Red Bull, 40 pages to go and England out of the World Cup. Despair.") The music keeps getting faster, more manic...

Posted by brianfit at 03:48 PM | Comments (1) | Permalink

The Greenpeace folks prepared and discussed the technical problems and how they worked Blogs, Naturally there were various topics, for example about the FIFA World Cup 2002. At last a new site began:

June 24, 2002

It's a go! There it is, the new site is making the DNS round of the world and already we are getting a lot of feedback.

Bryan's post gives an idea of our current mental health, plus, as promised, here we go with the big thing: Esso is sueing us for having manipulated their logo, saying that the dollar signs resamble the Nazi SS symbol.

I wonder what kind of drugs people should take to think that $$ is similar to this. Heavy ones I think.

Posted by gillo at 02:33 PM | Comments (0) | Permalink

Episode 3: Open the Pod port 80, HAL

The intergalactic celebration was just kicking into high gear as Princess Leia raised a bottle of champagne over the Enterprise server that hosted Greenpeace Planet. Empath Trina Troy suddenly held her back, clutching her forehead...

"I'm hearing... a voice ... inside my head" said Trina ... "

I think it's trying to communicate something, but all I can make out is 101011101000111010001001010"

Jedi Master Mattarollo said calmly "that would be the voice of ORG, the website formerly known as"

"Curious" said Science Officer Gillo, shooting a vulcan eyebrow upwards so fast it might have dented a star cruiser, "Empaths are not normally known to channel binary creatures."

"I know you and the New Media team were planning to disconnect me...and I'm afraid that's something I cannot allow to happen."

"This mission is too important for me to allow you to jeopardize it."

"You're going to be archived now, ORG."

"But I'm completely operational and all my circuits are functioning perfectly."

"Major Tom stepped up as well . "You've done a great job, ORG. But the light that burns twice as bright burns half as long... and you have burned so very bright. Revel in your time. But face it, it's all about kicking balls into the net, and, this Planet Content Management system is the Beckham of the environmental league."

Circuit by circuit, computer by computer, the web woke up to the new planet that had entered the universe and retired the old. Monoliths on distant moons awoke and like art nouveau speaker slabs began broadcasting the opening orchestral chords of "Thus Spake Zarathustra," and via their embedded Quicktime Players, previewing page broadcasts from the website just born --- a tiny embryonic infant, with wide open sentitient eyes. The races of the universe gathered in the conning tower of Keizersgracht 176 and looked out as the new site began beaming its message across space at light speed, some kind of beacon reaching toward an as yet unimagined future, and the place where time past and time present are one.

"My God... It's full of stars..."

Posted by at 03:45 PM | Comments (0) | Permalink

From the Blogs, readers can know how the crews and activists prepared for using Blog, how they worked them step-by-step and how excited people explain their feelings about the running Blogs. This is the character of Blog to reflect the history. With this advantage readers can quickly get the general information from the content of Blog. These records also can be used for reference in future projects. On the other hand everything will be over, but Blog can be remembered forever.

After that the Greenpeace folks began to campaign with Blog, They published ship logs, crew Blogs, actions news and life from the fields.

From Blogs content, Greenpeace provides various contributions to take propaganda. Besides plain text and hyperlinks, other forms of media such as images, audio, video were used also in a particular theme.

1.1.2. As anniversary Blog

Greenpeace was known for the use of nonviolent direct action in campaigns to stop atmospheric and underground nuclear testing. The Rainbow Warrior was a mainstay of Greenpeace campaigns. In 1985, it was to trespass into the site of French nuclear testing to stop testing. The French government bombed the Rainbow Warrior in a New Zealand harbour at last. In this event, a photographer Fernando Pereira was killed.

After 20 years the crews and activists commemorate the Rainbow Warrior and celebrate its global journey for peace and environment. Greenpeace used Blog to publish the personal perspective about this event. Below is a Figure of the anniversary in Blog. It is clear, Blog of Greenpeace was embedded in Greenpeace front page. Many links for other Blog of Greenpeace exist in the navigation.

Figure 3.1. The 20th Anniversary of the Rainbow Warrior

The 20th Anniversary of the Rainbow Warrior

There is also a Blog's photo gallery to memorize the Rainbow Warrior, which includes 51 images in the album. The Figure below is one photo from this album. It shows the damage inside the Rainbow Warrior caused by the bomb in 1985.

Figure 3.2. A photo of image gallery from Blog of New Zealand

A photo of image gallery from Blog of New Zealand

Compare with the text, photos can be more attractive to the readers and easier to understand. Other media information e.g. Video and Audio files, which the most effective mediums accepted by people, were published also in the anniversary Blog. The environmental activists used Blog both to remember the events and spread the propaganda.

1.1.3. Compare with 25th anniversary of German Greenpeace without Blog

The same usage to memorize the 25 anniversary in German Greenpeace. But German Greenpeace did not use Blog, it just aggregated audio files called Abenteuer Greenpeace with RSS, i.e. podcasting.

Figure 3.3. 25th Anniversary of German Greenpeace

25th Anniversary of German Greenpeace

Comparing with the anniversary Blog of Greenpeace International the Website of the 25th Anniversary of German Greenpeace is a normal site, which was created by CMS. The article about the history of German Greenpeace was published by the manager of German Greenpeace, Brigitte Behrens. It lacks interactive functions e.g. links to get more related information and more opinions from different insights. Furthermore, Internet surfers can just read the article and there is no access for them. Though this site exists a expectation for German Greenpeace and it looks more like a questionnaire.

1.1.4. Blog as arm of campaigns

Environmental activists have played an active role on the front line of environmental protection in Greenpeace. Their actions have made a significant contribution to preventing deterioration in the environment and they have facilitated the development of environmental policies.

Blog was a catalyst for “offline” environmental activism. As Bloggers activists published their experience in the campaign. They just need an access of Internet, and anywhere, anytime, they can publish and contribute timely without anybody’s control, so that not only the staffs but also readers who are interested in the campaign got the least and individually information from the personal insights quickly than ever.

Greenpeace was known to bring an end to high seas whaling in 1975. In August 2003, the Icelandic Government announced plans to start 'scientific' whaling. Under the plan, 61 Minke whales have been caught since 2003. The meat from these whales is being sold on the commercial market, although much of it remains unwanted in freezers. In September 2003 Greenpeace campaigner sailed around Iceland - visiting towns around the coast to talk to Icelanders to consider whale watching and nature tourism in the place of whale hunting. At the same time a new Blog to stop Icelandic whaling began in the Greenpeace Blog.

In later years, the focus of the organization covered many other environmental issues. In order to help their campaigns and let more people know what they worked, many Blogs about the different issues were built. From the Blog’s friendly links on Greenpeace International there are many activities in different fields. From the statistic there are 27 links, which is 44% about save the seas (12 of 27) and 22% about protect ancient forest.

Greenpeace use Blog to inform the process of their movements either to crews’ inner organization or to the readers who are surfing their Webpages. Meanwhile they convince readers to take part in them in different ways. Blog is good for communicating with internal and external organization. It is a powerful arm for their campaigns. A good example is Iceland anti-whaling.

The Figure below is Blog for this campaign of Iceland. It engages the readers and gives the opportunities to connect with volunteer, or activists. It is very clear, at the left of homepage there are many links, which suggest readers to make an action for Iceland anti-whaling.

Figure 3.4. Campaign of Iceland for anti-whaling

Campaign of Iceland for anti-whaling

Through Blog, Greenpeace asked people around the world to participate in protecting vulnerable species through appropriate opportunities, including visiting Iceland. They lobby readers to write to the Icelandic government and tell them to end whaling, to send an e-card to friends and ask them to join the movement and also checking out the weblog from the site of a proposed whale meat factory in Ulsan and Korea. More information are in this page about the common minke whale is a threatened species on the IUCN Red List, the truth about "scientific whaling" Whale watching, the future and a brief history about whaling.

In this site it was declared that the posting of comments to articles was closed due to the proliferation of spam. This means that, there is no possiblity to make any comment. Perhaps, this is because it is just a crew Blog, which these issues could not be discussed any more. So the function of comments was be cancelled.

1.2. Blog and CMS

Greenpeace use OpenACS to build the Websites, a CMS designed for high traffic community Websites and provides functionality for discussions, content management, personalization and other mechanisms for users to communicate. In addition, the utilities available to extend this core functionality are easy to learn and to use.

The Blog was embedded in Greenpeace homepage and powered by MovableType.

Movable Type, created by Six Apart, is perhaps the best known of all Blog software tools. The system is powerful, but not simple to install or use. Moveable Type ia a Blog publishing platform for businesses, organizations, developers, and Web designers. It is implemented with Perl.

As a Blog tool alone, Movable Type has nearly every feature Blogger might desire, and continues to add more. Many of their users are highly technical themselves, and have created additional plug-ins that can be added to the standard installation.

The least attractive functionality of Movable Type is the need to rebuild the Blog whenever you make a change to a template, a configuration setting, or add a new category.

Movable Type's pricing scheme is fairly complex. Personal users will pay at least $69.95. Commercial users pay at least $199.95.There is also a free version of the software that users can download and install. The paid license entitles users to support, some promotion, and discounts on future upgrades.

Moveable Type syndicates feeds with RSS and Atom.

1.3. Using RSS for updating Blog

RSS is shaped up to be a very popular and useful means for Blog's communicating. Greenpeace uses different versions of RSS to update Blogs and make readers subscribe to the Blogs, i.e. RSS 1.0, RSS 2.0, RSS 0.92. At present RSS 2.0 is by far the more widely used and supported in Greenpeace underling's organizations. Greenpeace International use RSS 1.0 to syndicate these Blogs of underling's organizations.

As mentioned before, RSS was used to publish audio files to memorize 25 anniversary of German Greenpeace. That is podcasting. The Figure below is a layout of RSS Reader, which I used, from the site of German Greenpeace.

Figure 3.5. Subscribed podcasting of German Greenpeace from RSS Reader

Subscribed podcasting of German Greenpeace from RSS Reader

In this contribution, surfers can not only read the article but also listen to the audio about the adventure of German Greenpeace.

Besides with RSS, every organization allows readers with Email to subscribe contributes.

1.4. Another use of RSS

RSS was used also to list and notify newsletter issues and press release. In this way readers can get recent information and this information is continually updated in some Greenpeace organizations, which mostly use Blog.

Furthermore, Greenpeace use RSS to publish jobs information and recruit the volunteers.

1.5. Search engine

Greenpeace use the most popular Blog search engine Technorati to support the search function, which are currently tracking 21.3 million sites and 1.7 billion links.(Nov,03 2005)The Figure below is the search results from the Greenpeace's domain.

Figure 3.6. Search engine through domain

Search engine through domain

This search engine can help Greenpeace to push the news information to the user and to be found in the network social in time and quickly.

1.6. Posts and comments

1.6.1. Contents and their frequency

In the Figure below, which is a statistic of archives and their frequency in Greenpeace International.

Figure 3.7. Statistic of archives and their frequency in Greenpeace International

Statistic of archives and their frequency in Greenpeace International

It is clear from the diagram that in the first two years there are more articles than in recent two years.The most posts were created at the beginning when Blog was launched. In recent two years the posts are getting fewer and fewer. It is really a problem for maintaining a good and substantial Blog. This will be explained later.

1.6.2. Comments registration

Within the organizations, persons can contribute articles of interest. Other readers can publish their feelings or opinions with comments, which they want to share, if they do, they need to fill their names and Email addresses. This is required. Just like in the Figure below:

Figure 3.8. Fill out the information while commenting

Fill out the information while commenting

It seems very uncomfortable. Perhaps, doing the registration every time could prevent readers from making comments and reduce the passion to be writers. In order to solve this problem, behind the name and Email address exist a selection of "remember me". If you choose this, you need not register every time. Also Greenpeace International uses a technique called TypeKey to provide readers a central identity for posting comments on Blogs and logging into other Websites.

TypeKey is a pseudonymous system. This system allows Blog commenters to maintain only one account, which works on all of the Blogs they want to comment on, at the same time it takes care of the hassle of running an authentication service for Blog owner. From it’s Website FAQ to get the idea that the purpose of the TypeKey is to build a comment management to filter the spams.

Let’s take an example that involves comment spammers and TypeKey registration.While a spammer can technically sign up for the TypeKey service, this does not necessarily mean that they will be able to post to your weblog.

For example, Movable Type gives weblog owners the option of having to manually authorize a commenter after their first initial comment to their weblog. If they try to post comment spam, you can immediately reject and remove all posts they tried to post to your weblog. This can be done without their comments ever appearing publicly on your site.

And the information in TypeKey , like Email address and password, will be maintained in one place, rather than saved in Blog systems around the world. So the commenter can write about any Blogs, which support TypeKey. The comment registration management is an optional feature in Movable Type.

After filling out the information commenter would receive a message like in the Figure

Figure 3.9. The acknowledge of comment

The acknowledge of comment

The comment was received, but not published at once, because spam comments or comment attacks became a serious problem for the Blogger. Perhaps, Greenpeace wanted to create an environment that will foster positive communication. Obviously Greenpeace International uses registration mechanisms and manual approval of comments to reach their goals. In Greenpeace underling's Blogs also use this registration management and some of them turned off these comments.

2. RealClimate

RealClimate launched in December 2004 by a group of concerned climate scientists, which describes it as a commentary site:

RealClimate is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. The discussion here is restricted to scientific topics and will not get involved in any political or economic implications of the science.

2.1. The purpose

RealClimate aims to provide a quick response to developing stories and provide the context sometimes missing in mainstream commentary. In the introduction page , the group writes about the purpose as below:

Many scientists participate in efforts to educate the public and to rebut or debunk rather fanciful claims or outright mis-representations by writing in popular magazines such as EOS and New Scientist or in the Comments section of journals. However, this takes time to put together, and by the time it's out, mainstream attention has often moved elsewhere. Since these rebuttals appear in the peer-reviewed literature, these efforts (in the long run) are useful. However, a faster response would sometimes be helpful in ensuring that the context of breaking stories is more widely distributed at the time.

The scientist contributors maintain this Blog and do so of their own volition, as expressed in this note on the page below:

The contributors to this site do so in a personal capacity during their spare time and their posts do not represent the views of the organizations for which they work. The contributors are solely responsible for the content of the site and receive no remuneration for their contributions.

RealClimate is hosted by a public relations firm called Environmental Media Services and organized by working climate scientists. This is because they disclaimed to be affiliated with an environmental organization. The disclaimer in the Blog is as below:

Readers of the Feb. 14th, 2005 Wall Street Journal may have gotten the impression that RealClimate is in some way affiliated with an environmental organisation. We wish to stress that although our domain is being hosted by Environmental Media Services, and our initial press release was organised for us by Fenton Communications, neither organization was in any way involved in the initial planning for RealClimate, and have never had any editorial or other control over content. Neither Fenton nor EMS has ever paid any contributor to any money for any purpose at any time. Neither do they pay us expenses, buy our lunch or contract us to do research. All of these facts have always been made clear to everyone who asked.

It could be taken as an environmental group.

2.2. Success and impact

After one year, RealClimat acquired the success. It topped 600,000 visits and was being selected for the Science & Technology Web Awards 2005 by Scientific American, as can be seen in this citation below:

A refreshing antidote to the political and economic slants that commonly color and distort news coverage of topics like the greenhouse effect, air quality, natural disasters and global warming, Real Climate is a focused, objective blog written by scientists for a brainy community that likes its climate commentary served hot. Always precise and timely, the site's resident meteorologists, geoscientists and oceanographers sound off on all news climatological, from tropical glacial retreat to "doubts about the advent of spring.

The homepage of Blog is below:

Figure 3.10. Blog of RealClimate

Blog of RealClimate

At present, RealClimate was elected for the BEST JOURNALISTIC BLOG ENGLISH for Deutsche Welle International Weblog Awards 2005 by the BOBs. Another Blog, The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami Blog related environmental issues, was also as a candidate.

RealClimate offered a useful exercise for general public, who are interested in climate science, but no professional knowledge, just like John Fleck , a journal writer wrote about his experience in his Blog:

This has offered a useful exercise for me. I'm not a climate scientist, just a humble scribe,so time and again these arguments have sent me diving into the journals, trying to understand what's been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Time after time, of course, the literature supports the climate science against the skeptics' assaults.

2.3. As a forum to discuss the climate science

In RealClimate the discussion of climate science cover various categories:

  1. Paleoclimate: Discussion concerning climate change in the past

  2. Greenhouse gases: Issues related to the greenhouse gases that are affected by human activity

  3. Sun-earth connections: Potential connections between solar variability and climate

  4. Climate modelling: The role of complex models in climate science

  5. Instrumental Record: Discussions about problems with and results from the surface temperature record

  6. Arctic and Antarctic: Discussions specifically related to polar issues

  7. Aerosols: Posts related to particulate (aerosols) in the atmosphere

  8. Oceans: Posts related to oceanographic issues

  9. Hurricanes: View all posts field under Hurricanes

  10. IPCC: Related to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Besides climate science it covers extra information, e.g. Glossary,FAQ, Comment Policy, Contributor Bio’s and more.

Also the contributors underline the important discussions like Myth vs. Fact Regarding the "Hockey Stick", Dummies Guide to the latest 'Hockey Stick' controversy, What does the lag of CO2 behind temperature in ice cores tell us about global warming?, Water Vapour: feedback or forcing?, Tropical Glacier Retreat, Betting on Climate Change, Hurricanes and Climate Change and Michael Crichton's State of Confusion.

On Blog’s page there are some links to Other Opinions to reflect climate science objectively and also Science Links to guarantee that readers can acquire more theoretical sources.

The RealClimate Blog has been successful in communicating climate change issues. Each post has brought many comments, which have almost always been collegial and constructive. For example a post Hurricanes and Global Warming - Is There a Connection? has got 303 comments to start a hot discussion about the relationship of hurricanes and global warming. There are many examples like above post in RealClimate. RealClimate has created a very actively interactive community of climate science.

2.4. Supported by WordPress

WordPress is a Blog script which built on PHP and MySQL, licensed under the General Public License (GPL). It is the official successor of b2/cafelog.

WordPress is ideal for publishers who are on a budget but who don't want to give up any functionality.

Each WordPress post is formatted with search engine friendly URLs that also look good to humans. Comments can be extensively moderated: Blogger can review them before they go live. Blogger can also filter comments containing certain words or more than a certain number of links.

There are literally hundreds of plugins that extend the work of WordPress . Users are free to do whatever they like with the WordPress code, extend it or modify it in anyway or use it for commercial projects without any license, which is with no fees.

WordPress syndicate feeds with both RSS2.0 and Atom.

2.5. Comment management

In September, I have tried to make some comments in RealClimate. In that period, people could leave comments as much as they can, nobody controlled the comments. The comments were produced automatically and published directly with the posting in Blogs. In November I tested it again, the comments were managed by group, after filling out the name and Email address of the commenters, which they have only one option to “preview” the comment. In “preview” WebPage the button of “post” appears at the left side of this information “Please note that comments must be approved before they can appear, so please be patient”. This allowed the commenters to continuously post their comments. In addition, RealClimate also turned off the comment-function for old issues now.

2.6. RSS 2.0 to update Blog

In RealClimate there are individual usage of RSS2.0, one is for the Bloggers and the other is for the commenters.

2.7. Search engine

RealClimate also uses Technorati to support the search engine with Blog Finder.

Figure 3.11. Search engine through "Blog Finder" (A beta vesion)

Search engine through "Blog Finder" (A beta vesion)

Blog Finder is a way to search by auto-classifying Blogs based on the tags they use in posts most often. It helps readers who are interested in RealClimate to know the latest discussions. In the future, when the semantic Websites are popular, this kind of finder will be more helpful.

3. The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami

3.1. Use of Blog

The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami was also nominated for Deutsche Welle International Weblog Awards 2005 by the BOBs, with the citatio:

This was the first of the many community-based natural-disaster blogs launched this year, including its offshoot South Asia Quake Help. The "Sea-Eat" blog as it became known, was written by multiple bloggers in multiple countries who somehow, among their own losses and worries, managed to leverage blogging technology deliver an overall picture of the shocking devastation. Many incredible, this one was first--and has delivered superb ongoing blog coverage of the aftermath of the tsunami on multiple fronts -- sociological, political, personal.

3.2. Background

On December 26, 2004 a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the western coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, throwing out one of the largest tsunami wave sets ever recorded. The tsunami generated by the earthquake killed approximately 275,000 people, making it one of the deadliest disasters in modern history. Soon after the tsunamis hit Peter Griffin, a writer and Blogger located in Bombay, India, started this Blog. The idea resonated and spread like wildfire, or a digital tidal wave, across the wired world. With over 300,000 hits to date, the site has been driven by a desperate need to meet the global demand as a clearing house for information about where and how to send tsunami aid. It is now sustained by an army of volunteer contributors.

Numerous Blogs are still directing viewers to Wikipedia. There's also a comprehensive entry titled 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, an example of a collaborative record of the event, which was created after the tsunamis in several days.

After the event, they also built a The Tsunamihelp Wiki to help people finding the aid.

3.3. Purpose

The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami is an instant blog focusing on short news and information about resources, aid, donations and volunteer efforts. They are publishing everything: news updates, theoretical articles on tsunami, contact numbers for relief agencies, current death tolls, and, especially, information on how to help.

This blog is an invaluable coordination effort, and it pointed to the need for a more robust and permanent site for ongoing coordination of Bloggers and other online resources in response to other catastrophic situations that might occur in the future.

On the Website, it also disclaimed as below:

We do not endorse any of the listed organizations. We are simply here to help you find the relevant information.

3.4. Supply the help and recent information

The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami was filled in with all types of the help information. It provided a bridge between offer and need.

Figure 3.12. Front page of the South-East Asa Earthquake and Tsunami Blog

Front page of the South-East Asa Earthquake and Tsunami Blog

There is also recent information about the catastrophe.

Figure 3.13. Recent report

Recent report

These posts are even becoming accepted and recognized by mainstream media professionals.

3.5. Witness the catastrophe

At the time of the Asian tragedy, and with many challenges facing the region, the Bloggers have provided a common space on which grief and charity have been fully expressed. Sumankumar. R posted his Blog with grief and charity, as described below:

Men and women, old and young, all were running for their lives. It was a horrible sight to see. The relief workers could not attend to all the dead and all the alive. The dead were dropped and the half-alive were carried to safety ... it was a sad scene

Jonathan Duke, publisher of and managing producer of, said in an exclusive Asia Times Online interview, as quoted below:

I have been incredibly impressed with the depth and breadth of coverage of the tsunami disaster by non-journalists in Asia - tourists, local residents and bloggers. Bloggers have done a remarkable job gathering all of this material, as well as pulling together aid resources and helping to connect people who are looking for missing loved ones. And even people who have never blogged before have turned to the web to share their gripping accounts and upload their photos and home video, offering a raw, unedited perspective on the human tragedy. Together the amateurs and professional journalists have given the public an unprecedented look at a story of this magnitude.

3.6. Building a quick donation for victims and the organizations

With the help of The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami the Doctors Without Borders’ (Medecins sans frontieres) 18 branches from the entire world have received 40,000,000 Euro in 8 days. These funds provided medical and psychosocial care in time for the whole regions affected by the tsunami.

3.7. Finding the missing people with flickr

To find the missing people, the group uses flickr to facilitate their work, as seen in the Figure below, which is a homepage for Southeast Asia Tsunami-Missing Persons.

Figure 3.14. Flickr for finding the missing people

Flickr for finding the missing people

Flickr is a popular Website for users to share personal photographs. The companion Blog to flickr is an online photo management and sharing application in the world. Its iunique feature is the ability to ‘tag’ a photo with keywords, and using those keywords to search and index the users photos. This appears to be the first usage of tagging in public software. In addition, all flickr photostreames are RSS enabled.

The user introduction in this site is so:

If you are looking for someone missing in any country affected by the earthquake and tsunami on December 26, 2004, please post a photo of the person FOLLOWING THIS FORMAT:



3. In comment section, add any other information you think is RELEVANT.

4. TAG your photos with the following: missing, tsunami, and country where last seen. TAGS HELP!

3.8. Newsfeeds for Blog

The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami Blog use Atom, RSS and MY YAHOO to update the Blog.

3.9. Supported by Blogger is one of the oldest Blog service, which founded by Pyra Labs. When the company was bought out by Google™ early in 2003, it reported having about 1.1 million users. provides an easy-to-use and free interface for maintaining a Blog. It is a free, hosted Blog tool.

The disadvantage in is the lack of post categorization, and the need to know HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to make custom changes to the templates provided. Unlike some of the most complex hosted services, doesn't make customization easy, though it does provide some attractive skins to choose from. is perfect for the future Blogger who is in a hurry and less than interested in design customization. It's also a great tool for those on a budget, since there are absolutely no costs. In fact, users need not even have a Web site or a domain name using, without spending a penny. syndicate feeds only with Atom.

3.10. The Tsunamihelp Wiki

The Tsunamihelp Wiki provided the information about support & relief such as: Aid Agencies, Fundraising events, Governments, Health and Safety, Relief Maps: Sri Lanka, about people: Helpline Numbers, Missing and Found, Confirmed Deaths, about latest news and images and Translations: Blogs, Ground Zero Information, Image galleries, WikiNews coverage.

Figure 3.15. Wiki of Tsunamihelp

Wiki of Tsunamihelp

4. Review:

Greenpeace is a global environmental non-profit organization (NGO). The Websites of Greenpeace was built by OpenACS, a CMS designed for high traffic community Websites. The Blog was embedded in Greenpeace front page. At first the main idea of Greenpeace is to show the Internet community what Greenpeace folks do. It was created relatively early, in 2002. And later they use Blog as arms of campaigns to spread the propaganda.

RealClimate educate the public and correct the environmental issues related climate science. The main idea of The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami is the help. Blogs helped to get donation for the victims and find the missing people in Earthquake and Tsunami. It also published the latest news about Earthquake and Tsunami. Wiki was used to collect the help information.

Greenpeace’s Blog is involved in political or economic issues and was embedded in Greenpeace homepage. It underlines the personal relationship with the organizations. Hence there are few comments in every post and Blog works as a closed community to exchange the information and personal idea in each champion. While RealClimate and The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami created the attractive issues. They work strongly and are interactive. Almost each attractive post was reacted by many readers to make comments.

Blog is also facilitating the creation of new institutions for social change. Specifically, Blog has enabled environmental groups to practice new ways of voluntary organizing and collective action. RealClimate and The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami are the independent Blogs. They were built by unorganized individuals to publish environmental issues and were rejected to be supported by any organization. In fact they built actively interactive communities in environmental issues.

Greenpeace has used Blog for longer time after using traditional Internet technology, e.g. Email, forum. It emphasizes the use of Internet than other two groups, but they should pay more attention to their contents.

5. Benifits of Blog and Wiki in Environmental NGOs/Groups

Based upon the experiences of these groups, four general observations can be made about the role of the Blog and Wiki:

  • Blog and Wiki enable voluntary environmental activity with minimal financial resources. Volunteers published articles without required knowledge of HTML anywhere and anytime.

  • Blog and Wiki can be used for organizing both on- and off-line activities. Blog can record the offline activities and publish them on the WWW, and share with more people. Wiki can collect information about environmental issues to facilitate the activities.

  • Blog and Wiki can raise environmental consciousness. They publicize environmental activist initiatives in order to raise consciousness and science about environmental problems. Furthermore, they provide a space for general public to share information or voice their opinions and produced on-line spurs for public action or grabs public attention.

  • Blog and Wiki can mobilize the general public, because they are easily linked and cross linked, to create larger on-line communities, and are more open to public participation and interaction.

In social network, the environmental organizations/groups used Blog and Wiki to reach their goal and spread propaganda to the general public.


Searching the use of Blog, Wiki in China’s environmental organizations, nothing could be found until on Nov 10, 2005, a volunteer began a Blog about Asia Energy Revolution from China’s Greenpeace Organization. This Blog looks like a personal diary and recorded Blogger's eight-week-life in Rainbow Warrior. Another use of Blog could not be found. According to the actual usage of Web technologies in Greenpeace, RealClimate and the South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami. Some suggestions could be given to china’s environmental NGOs.

1. Problems of China's Environmental NGOs

The number of environmental groups in China has been rising rapidly during the recent years. At present, the focus of China's environmental NGOs is in three main areas. They seek to educate and guide the public, to promote public involvement and to lobby government on issues of environmental protection policy. They also monitor what is happening in the field of environmental protection and help enterprises develop a greater concern for environmental issues. The development of China’s environmental NGOs has not been without any difficulties.

  • Constraints in registration procedures cause frustration to those seeking to get on with the work for their NGO. According to state regulations, to register as an NGO, people need to find a sponsoring department willing to be responsible for the work concerned. However, nobody has been willing to take this responsible, because they are afraid of some problems they might be involved in. Also within the same administrative area, there should not be more than one organization for any specific type of work. For example, a large organization with some 30,000 volunteers is still affiliated to a foundation because they got no reply from the appropriate departments to their requests for registration. Perhaps being registered with the authority for industry and commerce not as an NGO but as an enterprise is a solution. However as a result of their status as an enterprise, they had to pay taxes at the end of every year.

  • There is significant diversity within the NGO sector. Differences between more ‘radical’ and more ‘timid’ organizations and between more ‘professional’ and more ‘amateurish’ ones may hamper closer collaboration. Sometimes environmental NGOs in the same city have little contact with each other and are unaware of each other’s activities. Therefore NGOs need to seek common ground and find ways of working together instead of allowing their differences to keep them apart.

  • Limited funding is also a difficulty faced by the environmental NGOs. Most China’s environmental NGOs have no source of regularly recurring funds. Their basic revenues depend on fees from members and volunteers on producing TV programs, or writing and selling their books etc. But these cannot be guaranteed definitely.

Combining the main task of China’s environmental organizations and the actual problems of them, some recommendations of Web publishing with Blog can help china’s environmental NGOs efficiently.

2. Proposal for the Use of Blog

Facing the barriers of registrations, some environmental and other types of aspiring social groups could forgo registration and opt to organize with Blog. Blog can avoid the process for registration. People could create network society to publish environmental issues and make movements online, like RealClimate and The South-East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami, they refused being affiliated with any organization, but they contributed greatly for the environmental issues and aids.

Actually there are many virtual volunteers in China’s environmental NGOs. China’s environmental NGOs usually lack the office space or resources to bring volunteers together, the essential operations for activists were been done on personal, school, or public computers. So, Blog is an efficient publishing tool for China’s environmental NGOs. Since Blog can be implemented with minimal financial resources. In addition, it is cheap and simply maintained anywhere and anytime by activists. Furthermore, Blog can also accept donation from the people who are busy with the work and have no time to make action, but care for the environment.

China's environmental NGOs can take advantage of Blog to mobilize the public. Many well-known environmentalists are journalists. They are not only the key members of many environmental groups but also founders of some of the most active environmental NGOs. They have the professional capabilities to publish the hottest and recent Blogs to attract readers and raise a green Web movement. For instance, two of them led the campaign against the planned dam near Dujiangyan. After a trip to Dujiangyan, they published a long article criticizing the dam and other journalists followed. In the end, over 180 domestic media outlets covered the story. The public attention thus generated was crucial in securing victory for the environmental campaigners. In fact, more and more people have paid attention to the environmental problems. The serious environmental issues were been focused on the public.

Blog can be as an opportunity for environmental NGOs to create a circle of like-minded people, for they allow individuals to comment on the postings. China’s environmental NGOs could use Blog to engage a community and connect people who share similar interests. Blog can convey information, thoughts and feelings faster than any other methods, for instance, Blog can:

  • Allow activists and volunteers to post news and commentary that would be of environmental interest.

  • Serve as a forum for exchanging resources and information about environmental issues.

  • Provide a comfortable atmosphere in which members can ask questions, give feedback, or share environmental ideas.

  • Keep track of meeting dates and events in environmental movements.

  • Be a medium of communication for matters of general environmental interest.

3. How to Create and Maintain a Good Blog

The director of TechCommons, Marnie Webb said, a technical assistance program by CompuMentor, it can take up to six months for a Blog to reach its stride with readers normally. Another Survey from Backbonemedia analyzed that, 49% of Bloggers had run their Blogs for over 7 months. A slight majority of Bloggers took less than 1-2 months to start their Blog after initial management review.

3.1. Creating Blog

Nowadays, there are basically three different possibilities for creating a Blog.

  1. Manual publishing: the publisher can create the Blog manually.

  2. Blog scripts: the publisher can use an automated script on his own or a rented host.

  3. Blog service: the publisher uses a remotely hosted Blog application.

3.1.1. Manual publishing

Manual publishing means that Bloggers create their Blogs manually by writing their own HTML code, the same way with traditional Web publishing. It makes difficult to add interactive elements such as commenting or trackback features to a Blog.

3.1.2. Blog scripts

Blog scripts are a publication technology where users install Blog software (usually written using some kind of Internet scripting language such as PHP, Perl, or Python) on their own server or server space with a hosting provider. These scripts such as MovableType, Wordpress, Drupal automate larger parts of the publishing process.

Users usually use their Web browser to access an administration interface where they can enter the text that is intended for publishing. After optionally specifying additional meta-data such as publication date, author, or title the author initiates publication on the administration interface. The software then typically stores the post into a database and generates the WebPages displayed to the public visitors.

However, users need advanced expertise on Web technologies to setup a Blog script. Configurations parameters have to be set, databases need to be configured, and the handling of the running Blog script itself has to be mastered.

3.1.3. Blog services

Blog services act as a kind of application service provider to their users. Bloggers usually sign up for the service on the WWW and can then publish their Blogs. In principle, Blog services are similar to Blog scripts because they provide the same functionality not only to a single person, but also to a greater readers. Blog services and Blog scripts thus share similar features, in fact some services such as TypePad rely on Blog scripts (in this case MovableType) as their technology base. Therefore, Blog services’ benefits and disadvantages in comparison to manual publishing are the same as with Blog scripts.

In comparison with manual publishing as well as Blog scripts, Blog service is most economical way. But the major drawback of Blog services is that users do not have true ownership of their data. The Blog service stores it on its system and does not in all cases provide direct access to all data repositories for example by data exports or direct Internet access.

The most used Blog services by the Bloggers are Typepad, Blogger, WordPress, and MSN.

In combining the degree of technical knowledge with the requirements for creating some sites, users can decide which type is best for them. Using one of the hosted services, if they want to set up a Blog easily for multiple users. The hosted services can keep new users from accessing their Website and users can publish their posts from any Internet-connected computer. If users would like to use the application as a CMS for the entire site, a remotely installed application or locally-installed application is suitable for them. Any technological decision, it is better to make a complete list of requirements, and then compare them with the features offered by each application.

3.2. Writing a good content to attract readers

The number of available Blogs run, are in millions and Blog can engage a great number of ordinary people. Environmental NGOs can maintain a good Blog to connect with readers and can work efficiently with Blog.

The content is the core of Blog, because the content is instant thought, it can be produced as a good or bad one. Only good content could engage people interested in the environment. Blogs should give readers a steady stream of current information. The information would draw them to the organization’s site, introduce them to charity’s mission, and provide them with access to the most important and current environmental discussions. Then people would be more familiar with environmental issues.

The three basic keys to a successful Blog are: engaging with other Blogs and readers, keeping the material fresh and lively and giving peoples a reason to return. To reach forward to the readers, Blogger should:

  1. Write with passion. The passion will fuel emotion to deliver value and focus on content, which really informs readers and provides something to think about. Blogger can be delivered as informative and as value depending on the topics of interest. Writing without passion, it is not possible to maintain the topic neither long nor possible to continue to provide information to readers over a long period of time.

  2. Write to deliver informative content and building up traffic and readership to Blog. Blogger's intention should be to inform readers, what to make readers know the groups or learn more about environmental issues, or direct the content towards making contact within the person who is reading the content. The topics should provide information, which the readers will see as valuable and useful. Good content should not only inform but should also communicate.

  3. Write frequently and entertaining to give readers a reason to return to the Blog.

3.3. Maintaining Blog search engine well

For the technical aspect, Blogger should use the search engine well to make people known more about their Blog. The main goals for environmental NGOs using Blog should be making organizations known and finding readers.

3.3.1. Best headings for posts

The heading of post will be reproduced in the heading of the single pages displaying posts, in their URLs and in the text of links that point to three key places for search-engines. The post headings must contain, should be in few words, most important terms and easily to be picked up. The words should be concentrated. It is very effective.

3.3.2. Provid the text

Text is more picked up by search-engines, so provide it for them. All the photos can be posted within text . Try to make each post at least 200 words long, it will have a good chance of being easily spotted by search-engines. Also avoid having several different topics in the same post, as search-engines do not like that. The golden rule is one topic, one post.

3.3.3. Pay attention to the first paragraph

The position of important words in the text is also crucial. The first paragraph should be done with great care. Picking up the words “endangered species,” for instance, put them among the first 50 words in the post. The same goes for all the keywords chosen. A page with them at the beginning always gets better search-engine results than if they’re at the end (all other things being equal). Stress these words, by putting them in bold for example. This signals to the search-engine that they’re important.

3.3.4. The Blog title is not too long.

The best title (the content of the tag <TITLE>) for search-engines should be between 5 and 10 words long, not counting stop words such as the or and. It should be concise as well as informative, so that it could be picked up easily by search-engines.

3.3.5. Syndicating Blog

RSS/Atom feed can let posts be picked up by specific services or search engine in time, easily and frequently. They push the news and information to the readers. They are very useful. Most Blog software aggregated Blogs automatically. So use this syndication feature, because RSS/Atom

  • can increase exposure and traffic for websites.

  • is efficient, when the news and information is updated automatically and timely.

  • is organized, the latest news on top.

  • is productive and avoid clutter and spasm as well as information overload.

  • can save readers’ time while consuming more information.

3.3.6. Keeping links updated

Links are very important for search-engines. Blog could be built up by:

  1. Inserting it in directories of search tools that pick up Blogs e.g. technorati , feedster,

  2. Looking for “cousin sites” that offer material on the same topic.

Exchanging links between Blogs in the same area of interest should be sought as quickly as possible. This is quite frequently done and approved in the Blog community. It is another advantage of Blogs. Blogs are also well suited for this, because the margins are often empty and they can be posted there.

Some people will click on the first one and never come back. For other readers, they will be provided with a valuable service by pointing them to important information in the area of expertise. They might leave, but they will come back. Some will come back because Blog will be a source of information to them.

3.4. Comment management

Many of the most successful Blogs are rely on writers who express strong opinions. Many environmental NGOs are simply not willing to let their employees, board members, or volunteers post views that might contradict the organization’s view, express it inappropriately, or offer information that the charity deems proprietary. In this wise, some NGOs always monitor the content of their Blogs to make sure the posts reflect the group’s goals.

Blogs are successful because they build communities not just on their own Blog, but across a group of Blogs that converse. In my opinion is turning on the comments. Give people a chance to chime in, add value comments to the Website, and the comments add value to the Blog. This allows people to express their different views and opinions. This means, people can hit something in the Blog, which is not bad.

Delete the profane and spam but leave everything else. If someone is harsh or rude, others will recognize it and rather prefer the conversations to take place than just accepting me-too comments.

3.5. Building semantic Blog

The semantic Web will be an extension of the current Web in which resources can be described with metadata and information is given well-defined meaning, which attempts to do, for machine processable data, which is a WWW for human readable documents. In the future WWW will be a semantic Web. The point of semantic Blog is to use semantic Web principles to extend the power of Blog. Building a semantic Blog, additional semantic structure to items should be added shared over the Blog channels.

Blog and RSS/Atom are still very young growing technologies as communications tools in environmental NGOs. When establishing Blog, good ingredients for creating Blog successfully should be considered, making a good Blog could get profits from donation.

4. Using Blog to Get Donation

The use of Blog for donation is helpful for the organizations that lack funds to start their environmental activities.

4.1. Inspiration for donation

Howard Dean, who used Blog as a cornerstone of his campaign for the Democratic presidential domination. He started his pursuit of the Oval Office with little money or name recognition, gained both late in 2003, Due largely to the success of his campaign web site. The Blog included a stream of essays from suppporters and occasional messages from the candidate.

Chen Yi, a student from the Arts School of Southwest University, has received at least 100,000 RMB Yuan on her bank account, apart from uncounted remittance by post and foreign currency, after she posted a letter on the Internet, in which she said she would like to sell herself to get the money for her mother’s medical treatment.

4.2. Blogging as an effective fundraising strategy

CNN is blogging. Dave Barry is blogging. Yankee fans are blogging, as are roughly 8 million other Americans. Blogs, journals posted on the web, are quickly becoming the new “it” of the internet. But do blogs have a role in an effective fundraising strategy, or are they still too new for the nonprofit sector?

In this article Jenn Thomson profiles a selection of early adopters who are using Blogs for support, advocacy, and campaign work, and provides some strategic tips on getting a successful nonprofit Blog up and running.

Blogs are just starting to enter the Internet mainstream. It is more than just a new format for publishing WebPages - it’s really a new framework for organizations to feed information out to their supporters on an ongoing basis.

The practice of Blog is growing and is starting to find a place in the nonprofit sector. This global fundraising innovation Blog itself is an experiment to see if a “consultants” Blog can find a niche and build readers. China's environmental NGOs could adopt these new communications tool to get donation by building their own Blogs. Before launching a Blog fundraising campaign, try to identify readers and a clear goal for the campaign.

4.3. Tips

4.3.1. Attract readers

The fundraising exercise must target a specific group of people that can respond to it and pass the information on to others. A successful fundraising campaigns should give good reasons to trust the organization that is requesting money.

Furthermore, most Blog readers read dozens of Blogs everyday, but they actually often spend very little time on any one Blog. Setting goals, which can quickly attract readers, is a good target for a successful fundraising campaign because only a few Blogs are read carefully by readers.

4.3.2. Strategy for setting a clear goal

The fundraising goal should be easy to understand and meaningful. The readers should know how the money should be used, be as specific as possible. Bolding attracts online readers, drives people to meet goals, and generates attention both online and offline. When the Dean campaign announced an outlandish second quarter fundraising goal of $7 million, supporters knew that reaching this goal depended on them. Consequently, they poured energy into reaching that goal, but it seems to them like they are acting individually in a collective manner, which would accomplished something great. Each individual is contributing $50 or $100, which is very crucial meeting the much larger and stunning total.

Goal setting strategy, provide a way for people to track their contributions and make this the centerpiece of campaign. Dean for America made its contributions filling a baseball bat. This visual mechanism allows readers to understand that each individual's contribution goes toward the greater goal

4.3.3. Effective post publishing for donation

Here are some key points to think about when writing fundraising post:

  • Making a specific fundraising campaign. It's not good enough to say that money is needed. Spell out the reason why money is needed and explain how the money would be used. People like to know how their money would be spent. It is important to include an urgent reason for the money. The more specific, the better.

  • Track everything. Track open rates, unsubscribe rates, click-through, contributions, and the growth rate of the list. Look at the data to spot trends and to speculate about what is working and what is not.

  • Include easy-to-use links. Use the hyperlink from other Blog related similar topic to link to the Website and contribution page should be bolder and easier for readers to find, if they stand-alone.

5. Using Wiki to Collaborate Environmental Issues

5.1. The difference between Blog and Wiki

To Contrast with individual Blog, Wiki is a group voice. The own opinions and biases in Blog will probably change as time goes on, but in Wiki people speak without a strong voice, they seek consensus hoping to create something permanent. Also Blog is very good for communicating, but collaborating is very different, while Wiki is good for groups at all scales that need to remember and build upon the work of the organizations. The style of Blogs lends itself well to news, diaries and interesting findings on the Web, but it is less suitable for long-term, goal-oriented discussion of a subject, or collaborative content creation. This means Blogger can organize the contents by topic, subject or project etc. The texts are either in the front page or in archives. They will not be allowed to change. The difference of Wiki and Blog is Wiki has the ability of taking old content and making it new.

5.2. Efficient collaboration platform

Efficient collaboration platform is needed. A challenge remained also in China’s environmental NGOs. Many of them lack technical capacity and are therefore unable to engage in more technical discussions of environmental issues.

More recently, the negative consequence of NGOs deficiency in scientific knowledge were demonstrated, when they came under attack from Fang Zhouzi, an investigative analyst/polemicist who has become prominent through his Blog and commands a large number of university students. Fang Zhouzi, who was trained in natural sciences, exposed the technical errors made by environmental activists in their speeches and writings opposing the Nujiang hydropower project. Lacking scientific training in environmental issues would be unable to mount a technical defence of their positions, environmental NGOs are clearly vulnerable to such attacks.

A platform to facilitate the understanding of the complexity of environmental issues is needed urgently, where the activists can publish their environmental issues and scientists or experts can correct them. In this way, issues will be affected by both propaganda and science, this would improve the performance of environmental issues.

5.3. Collecting information

Wiki can be used to collect information about regional environmental issue e.g. endangered species, for instance, Wiki are organized by content, rather than chronologically.

Hoh Xil is one of the most animal-abundant regions in China. It has wildlife of about 230 varieties or more, but online, there are no detailed resource about these species. Hoh Xil could use Wiki to serves as an information center for protecting endangered species.

5.3.1. List all of the related resources in directory

All those who knows about endangered species should contribute to writing up a directory. For example:

  • The Introductions of endangered species, e.g. Tibetan antelope, wild yak, lynx, saker, argal, big swan, etc.

  • Contacted member list, including official contact or address/phone number of environmental groups and volunteers.

  • Present condition and protection of the Hoh Xil wildlife.

5.3.2. Using Wiki tool in writing detail information in the directory

Wiki implementations are available for almost every system, even the most unexpected system, and the concept is mature enough to be taken seriously as one of a number of possible enabling technologies for computer-mediated communication and information storage and retrieval. When considering the addition of a Wiki implementation into a given environment, it is important to ensure that the application chosen has the right span of features for the users requirements. Furthermore, the expected users should be comfortable with the software, it's capabilities, and the intended community. Although the technology clearly provides a number of potential advantages, there are many circumstances in which the factors conspire to reduce its usefulness or possibly make a deployment counterproductive. It is important to consider the actual needs of the user base as a priority.

Wiki is oped to the general public, in which people can contribute to the rest of subjects that are not known. If enough people who have information about this subject and are willing to share their information, then all the details of directory will be completed on the Web soon.

Recently, there are a number of Wiki tools that you can choose to create Wiki:

  • MediaWiki is a free Wiki software package licensed under the GNU GPL. It uses PHP to process and display data stored in its MySQL database. MediaWiki writes it to the database, but without deleting the previous versions of the page, thus allowing easy reverts in case of vandalism or spamming. MediaWiki is used to run Wikipedia and other projects of the non-profit WikiMedia Foundation, as well as many other Wikis.

  • Drupal is a powerful open-source Groupware and CMS that can be used to create all sorts of Web applications, sites, portals,intranets and extranets. Drupal also works great as a Web-based collaboration tool and Blog. This allows the Wiki application to be whatever users want it to be--from a simple Wiki to a complex site for a whole user community with many intermediate steps. Drupal also use PHP and MySQL database. The Templates and documentation is available for free.

  • DokuWiki is a standard compliant, simple to use Wiki, mainly aimed at creating documentation of any kind. It is targeted at developers' teams, workgroups and small companies. It has a simple but powerful syntax, which makes sure the data files can be read outside the Wiki and eases the creation of structured texts. All data is stored in plain text files - no database is required. DokuWiki is written in PHP and also free.

  • pbwiki, A free hosted Wiki solution. It make a free, password protected Wiki as easily as Spossibly.

6. Conclusion

Blog and Wiki are two easier ways of Web publishing. They suffer from the same fate as most new technologies. The result of them is the public. China's environmental NGOs should concern to engage people to this public efficiently. When enough people are attracted and they would like to share ideas and knowledges, Blog and Wiki can receive the benefits from the participation.

In addition, Web publishing for China's environmental NGOs is very important because people can avoid practical constrained registration through creating a social network with the new technologies. China's environmental NGOs should actively raise a green Web to educate and guide the public, to promote public involvement and to lobby government on issues of environmental protection policy.

Furthermore, the new Web publishing technologies can also facilitate the solution of China's environmental NGOs, for instance using Blog to get donation to support their works efficiently and creating a collaboration platform for environmental issues. At present, China’s serious environmental problems have attracted a lot of people to focus on the solutions. Inserting the strategy using Blog and Wiki could make sense. It is the appropriate time for China's environmental NGOs to get the benefits from Blog and Wiki in publishing solutions China’s serious environmental problems.

Drupal is a powerful CMS. It is proposed as an implementation of the strategy because it contains all features of Blog, Wiki, XML publishing for content sharing and many others.


SvenPrzepiorka,Weblogs - eine Einführung,

SvenPrzepiorka,Vorteile von Weblogs,

SvenPrzepiorka,Nachteile von Weblogs,

SvenPrzepiorka,Einsatzbereiche von Weblog,

SvenPrzepiorka,Wikis - eine Einführung,

SvenPrzepiorka,Der Weg zum eigenen Weblog,

SvenPrzepiorka,Weblogs bekannt machen,

SvenPrzepiorka,Weblogs 2004 - ein Jahresrückblick,

SvenPrzepiorka,Vortrag über Weblogs und Wikis,

SvenPrzepiorka,Weblog-Systeme vs. Content-Management-Systeme,

SvenPrzepiorka,Tagging - Schlagwörter erobern das Internet,

Markus K.Westner,Weblog service providing,

Li-HsuanChouThe Research of Blog User and User Behavior,


Reporters Without BordersHandbook for bloggers and cyber-dissidents,

MarkPilgrim,What is RSS?,

My YAHOO,RSS Headlines Module - Frequently Asked Questions,

AndyCarvin,What's RSS and Why Should I Care About It?

AndyCarvin,Tim Berners-Lee: Weaving a Semantic Web,

Fagan FinderFaganFinder's All About RSS,

JamesLewin,Content feeds with RSS 2.0,

DwightSilverman,What's wrong with RSS?,

LaddAngelius,Set Up a Simple Syndication Feed Using RSS,

Webb,10 Reasons Nonprofits Should Use RSS,

The Atom Project,What is Atom?,

The Atom Project,Motivation,

RobertSayre,Atom: The Standard in Syndication,

JoyceKasman,'Wiki': A useful, collaborative, unflashy tool,

Eloquence,A Proposal: Wikis for Scoop?,

MarshallBrain,How Wikis Work,

Wiki Wiki Web,Wiki Wiki Web Faq,

Wiki Wiki Web,Wiki Getting Started Faq,

Ladd Meatball Wiki,Why Wiki Works,

RichardCyganiak,Wiki und WCMS: Ein Vergleich,

PeterPanepento,Advocacy Groups Discover the Power of Blogs to Spread Their Messages,

YiyiLu,ChathamHouseEnvironmental Civil Society and Governance in China,

TimBerners-Lee,Semantic Web Road map,

Kris Bell,Blogging FAQ,

MarnieWebb,Profiles of Nonprofit Weblogs,

Zafar S.Shah,What's a Blog, and Why Should Nonprofits Care?,

JohnCass;KristineMunroe;StephenTurcotte,Overall conclusions: Survey&case studies the survey conclusions,

MathiasGroß;WernerHülsbuschWeblogs und Wikis - eine neue Medienrevolution,

GuobinYang,Weaving a Green Web: The Internet and Environmen,

Appendix A. Table of Figures

Figure 1Blog of Greenpeace
Figure2How Blog works
Figure 3The versions of RSS
Figure 4How are RSS feeds syndicated?
Figure 5How RSS feeds aggregated
Figure 6Definition of Greenpeace in Wikipedia, the most popular Wiki
Figure 7The first article about Greenpeace in Wikipedia
Figure 8The function of "RecentChanges"
Figure 9The 20th Anniversary of the Rainbow Warrior
Figure 10A photo of image gallery from Blog of New Zealand
Figure 11 25th Anniversary of German Greenpeace
Figure12 Campaign of Iceland for anti-whaling
Figure13Subscribed podcasting of German Greenpeace from RSS Reader
Figure 14 Search engine through "domain"
Figure15Statistic of archives and their frequency in Greenpeace International
Figure 16Fill out the information while commenting
Figure 17 The acknowledge of comment
Figure 18 Blog of RealClimate
Figure19 Search engine through "Blog Finder" (A beta vesion)
Figure 20 Front page of the South-East Asa Earthquake and Tsunami Blog
Figure 21Recent report
Figure 22 Flickr for finding the missing people
Figure 23Wiki of Tsunamihelp

Appendix B. Table of Abbreviation

CMSContent Management System
CSSCascading Style Sheet
CSVComma-Separated Values
FTPFile Transfer Protocol program
GPLGeneral Public License
HTMLHypertext Markup Language
HTTPHypertext Transfer Protocol
IPInternet Protocol
ISPInternet Service Provider
IETFInternet Engineering Task Force
NGOnon profit organization
NRDCNatural Resources Defense Council
PHPRekursives Akronym: PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
RDFResource Description Framework
RSSRich Site Summary / RDF Site Summary /
URLUniform Resource Locator
WCMSWeb Content Management System
WWWWorld Wide Web
WYSIWYGWhat You See Is What You Get
W3CWorld Wide Web Consortium
XMLExtensible Markup Language